Vol. 3, No. 1 , 1997, Page 8

QUOTABLE: Kenneth Blum and James E. Payne

"Forty years of research into the causes of alcoholism and other addictions have led to one conclusion: irresistible craving is a malfunction of the reward centers of the brain involving the neurotransmitters and the enzymes that control them. Genetic research. indicates that the malfunction begins in the gene. Psychological and sociological research indicates that the environment can trigger, worsen, or to some degree alleviate the genetic predisposition, but the determining factors are biogenetic and biochemical."

Kenneth Blum and James E. Payne,
in Alcohol and the Addictive Brain

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